We often hear the term “DNS” when talking about the internet, but not many truly understand what the Domain Name System (DNS) actually is and how it works. This technology is an essential component that allows us to easily, quickly, and securely navigate the virtual world. In this article, we will delve deeper into DNS, its functions, and how this system operates behind the scenes to facilitate access to various websites. So, let’s get ready to explore the world of DNS and comprehend one of the most crucial aspects of internet infrastructure.
What is DNS?
DNS, or Domain Name System, is a system responsible for converting human-readable domain names (such as hanifmu.com) into machine-recognizable IP addresses (such as 220.127.116.11). Analogously, DNS can be likened to a phone book on the internet that connects domain names with their corresponding IP addresses. With DNS in place, we don’t need to memorize complex IP addresses to access the websites we desire.
DNS is a key component in maintaining the speed and reliability of internet access. It operates by relying on DNS servers distributed worldwide. These servers store information about IP addresses associated with specific domain names. The conversion process of domain names into IP addresses is crucial to ensure that we can connect to the websites or services we aim for quickly and efficiently.
In addition to facilitating access, DNS also plays a role in enhancing internet security. Some DNS systems are equipped with security features such as DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions), which protect users from attacks like “man-in-the-middle” and “cache poisoning.” These security features work by verifying the authenticity of DNS data received by our devices, ensuring that we connect to legitimate and secure websites or services.
How Does DNS Work?
To understand how DNS works, we need to follow the process that occurs when we try to access a website. First, we type the domain name of the website we want to visit into our web browser, for example, hanifmu.com, and press enter. Next, our device sends a DNS request to the DNS server owned by our internet service provider (ISP), asking for the IP address associated with that domain name.
The DNS server checks its cache to see if it already has the sought-after IP address. If so, the server sends the IP address back to our device, and we can access the desired website. If the DNS server does not have the IP address in its cache, it sends a recursive request to the root DNS server, which then responds with the IP address of the appropriate TLD server, in this case, “.com.”
Next, the DNS server sends another recursive request to the .com TLD server, asking for the IP address of the authoritative DNS server for the hanifmu.com domain name. After receiving the authoritative DNS server’s IP address, the DNS server sends a recursive request to that authoritative DNS server, asking for the IP address associated with the hanifmu.com domain name. The authoritative DNS server responds with the IP address, and the DNS server caches it for future requests.
Finally, the DNS server sends the IP address back to our device, and our web browser uses that IP address to connect to the targeted web server. As a result, we can access the website we desire.